Our partner OpenLink Software recently published a new DBpedia usage report on the SPARQL endpoint and associated Linked Data deployment.
Copyright © 2021 OpenLink Software
This document shows some of the statistics from the DBpedia 2016-10 dataset collected between July 2017 and January 2021; spanning more than three and a half year of logs from the DBpedia web service operated by OpenLink Software at
The log files used to prepare this document include data from the following DBpedia release:
The DBpedia service consists of:
- two or more Virtuoso Universal Server Instances — facilitating Linked Data Deployment including providing a SPARQL endpoint delivering RDF data in a variety of document formats subject to content-negotiation.
- a Reverse Proxy Server — which redirects client requests to an available Virtuoso instance and caches the results in case another client repeats the same request within a specified timeframe
- a physical computer — hosted in OpenLink Software’s datacenter
Currently the DBpedia service is hosted on two virtual machines running CentOS 6, each using 8 Intel Xeon E5–2630 2.30 GHz cores with 200 GB SSD and 64GB memory, hosting Virtuoso 7.2 Enterprise Edition with the Column Store Module.
To maintain equitable access to the DBpedia service for everyone, OpenLink Software limits connections by rate and concurrent connection, limiting disruption by faulty or misbehaving applications.
Current limit rates are:
- Connection limit of 50 parallel connections per IP address . This number is fairly high to permit multiple clients in networks using Network Address Translation (NAT) to appear as one network IP. Without the use of tracking cookies, it is impossible to distinguish between machines inside a NAT network, and for privacy and legal reasons, OpenLink Software has decided not to use such cookies at this point in time.
- Rate limit of 100 requests per second per IP address, with an initial burst of 120 requests.
As part of monitoring the DBpedia service, OpenLink Software performs frequent traffic analysis to make sure the service is running smoothly.
Ideally, applications should be written to check the HTTP status code of each request, and in case of a
503 (Service Unavailable) or
429 (Too Many Requests) code, perform a 1–2 second sleep before retrying the request.
OpenLink Software may alter these parameters at any time to make sure the service remains reachable to the general public.
In case of misuse, OpenLink Software may temporarily block an offender’s IP address from accessing the DBpedia service. This temporary ban will be automatically lifted once such a blocked IP address refrains from making any request to the DBpedia service for at least 5 minutes.
The Virtuoso configuration for the DBpedia endpoint includes:
- Query Execution Timeout of
120 seconds. This is the query solution preparation threshold. If the timeout stops execution before the solution is complete — i.e., if the solution is partial — this is indicated to the query client via HTTP response headers.
- Maximum SPARQL query solution (aka result set) size of
10,000 rows. This is the maximum number of solution rows (for
SELECTqueries) or triple/quad statements (for
DESCRIBEqueries) returned per query-solution-retrieval round-trip.
The “Anytime Query” is a core feature of Virtuoso that enables it to handle the challenges inherent in providing a publicly accessible interface for ad-hoc querying at Web scale. This feature allows an application compliant with the SPARQL- and HTTP-protocol to issue long-running and/or large-solution queries, for which finding the complete solution would exceed configured query timeout and/or result set limits, and rather than being rebuffed with no solution, to receive partial solutions conforming to those thresholds. Further, this feature enables the use of
OFFSET (typically combined with
ORDER BY and/or
GROUP BY) to create windows (also known as sliding windows or cursors ) to iterate through the complete query solution without being adversely affected by inserts or deletions.
Note: Even while paging through a partial query solution, Virtuoso continues to work towards a complete solution in the background.
As the W3C SPARQL standard currently does not specify an authoritative status code or header response to report a partial result set, OpenLink Software has opted to have Virtuoso return a status code of
200 to denote a successful request and add a custom header to the result to indicate that the result was limited to what could be returned within the settings enforced by the server.
If full execution of the query would return more than the configured maximum number of rows, the
X-SPARQL-MaxRows line is added, as shown below:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Tue, 1 Jan 2018 12:00:00 GMT Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1427536 Connection: keep-alive Vary: Accept-Encoding Server: Virtuoso/07.20.3224 (Linux) i686-generic-linux-glibc212-64 VDB X-SPARQL-default-graph: http://dbpedia.org X-SPARQL-MaxRows: 10000 Expires: Tue, 07 Jan 2018 12:00:00 GMT Cache-Control: max-age=604800 Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true Access-Control-Allow-Methods: HEAD, GET, POST, OPTIONS Access-Control-Allow-Headers: DNT,X-CustomHeader,Keep-Alive,User-Agent,X-Requested-With,If-Modified-Since,Cache-Control,Content-Type,Accept-Encoding Accept-Ranges: bytes
If the AnyTime Query timeout is reached, several headers are added:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Tue, 01 Jan 2018 12:00:00 GMT Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 80 Connection: keep-alive Server: Virtuoso/07.20.3224 (Linux) i686-generic-linux-glibc212-64 VDB X-SPARQL-default-graph: http://dbpedia.org X-SQL-State: S1TAT X-SQL-Message: RC...: Returning incomplete results, query interrupted by result timeout. Activity: 7 rnd 64.87M seq 0 same seg 1 same pg 0 same par 0 disk 0 spec disk 0B / 0 mess X-Exec-Milliseconds: 30000 X-Exec-DB-Activity: 7 rnd 64.87M seq 0 same seg 1 same pg 0 same par 0 disk 0 spec disk 0B / 0 messages 0 fork Expires: Tue, 07 Jan 2018 12:00:00 GMT Cache-Control: max-age=604800 Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true Access-Control-Allow-Methods: HEAD, GET, POST, OPTIONS Access-Control-Allow-Headers: DNT,X-CustomHeader,Keep-Alive,User-Agent,X-Requested-With,If-Modified-Since,Cache-Control,Content-Type,Accept-Encoding Accept-Ranges: bytes
The restrictions described above may impair some complex analytical queries. Users who frequently encounter these limits are advised to use one of the following methods:
- set up a private DBpedia instance in their own datacenter or in the cloud
- use a Docker image
- use an instance of OpenLink Software’s Pay-As-You-Go DBpedia AMIs (either the DBpedia 2016–10 Snapshot or the DBpedia-Live Mirror [starts from 2016–04 Snapshot]) on Amazon EC2.
The HTTP server log files used in this report exclude traffic generated by:
- IP addresses that were temporarily rate-limited after their burst period
- IP addresses that were banned after misuse
- applications, spiders, and other crawlers that were blocked after frequently hitting the rate-limiter or which generally claimed too many resources
The system uses a combination of firewall rules and Access Control Lists (ACLs) to quickly drop such connections, so legitimate users of the DBpedia service can continue to connect and execute queries.
To save time, these dropped connections are not recorded in the log files.
The data for this document was extracted from reports generated by Webalizer v2.21.
The first table shows the average numbers of Visits and Hits per day during the time each DBpedia dataset was was live on the http://dbpedia.org/sparql endpoint.
|DBpedia||From||Until||Days||Visits per day||Hits per day||Total Hits|
For detailed information on the specific usage numbers, please visit the original report by OpenLink Software published here. Also, older reports are available through their site. Read the previous usage report 2020 on the DBpedia blog.
Thanks for reading and keep using DBpedia!
Yours DBpedia Associaton